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PrimeGene is a high-tech enterprise focusing on recombinant protein research and development, production, and we can provide recombinant protein customization service for customers.

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Frequently Asked Questions
common problem
1Why do proteins need to be lyophilized? What are the effects on proteins?
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A
Proteins are heat sensitive and lyophilization allows the protein to be stored with maximum activity, extended shelf life, and reduced transportation costs. The effects of lyophilization on proteins include the possibility of partial inactivation, aggregation and other denaturation problems. However, these negative effects can be minimized by adding protective agents (stabilizers, additives, excipients) and controlling the various conditions of lyophilization.
2Why add protectants to the protein solution before lyophilization? What are the common protective agents used by PrimeGene?
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A
Freeze-drying has a certain effect on the activity of proteins, and the addition of a protective agent can reduce this effect and maximize the protection of protein activity. The usual protectants or stabilizers are sugars, polyols, polymers, surfactants, certain proteins and amino acids. Our common protective agents are: trehalose, mannitol, etc.
3Why do some proteins come with labels?
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A
The tagged proteins are generally used to meet the experimental requirements of some customers. If His-tag and GST-tag are required, affinity purification columns can be used; proteins fused to Fc fragments of immunoglobulins can be used for antibody studies, etc.
4How is the protein quantified?
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A
Usually three methods, BCA ,Bradford and OD280, are used for quantification.
5Why the results measured by my quantification method do not match the quantification on the PrimeGene label?
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A
Different protein quantification methods are used and will give different results. Sometimes the difference in results caused by different quantification methods is significant.
6I purchased a small package of lyophilized protein, why did I receive only one empty tube?
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A
Unlike some protein products on the market, the vast majority of our products do not contain carrier proteins or other additives (such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and alginose) and are lyophilized in a solution with minimal salt content. As a result, trace amounts of protein are deposited inside the tube during the lyophilization process, forming a very thin or almost invisible protein layer, and even the protein powder can drift on the tube walls. Before opening the cap, we recommend rapid centrifugation in a centrifuge for 20-30 seconds to allow the protein powder attached to the cap or wall to collect at the bottom of the tube.
7How to reconstitute the lyophilized powder protein?
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A
Unless the instructions are more specific, we recommend the following.
(1) Equilibrate the reagent bottle and reconstitute buffer to room temperature.
(2) Centrifuge the reagent vial briefly to ensure that all lyophilized material is collected at the bottom of the vial.
(3) Add the recommended re-dissolution buffer to the concentration recommended on the product description. Avoid vigorous shaking or pipette blowing, which may result in denaturation of the protein.
(4) Allow reagent vials to redissolve at room temperature for 15-30 minutes, either using a 360 degree shaker or manually by gently inverting up and down.
(5) Dispense in volumes no less than 10μl per tube and store as directed on the product insert.
(6) If the vial presents flakes or pellets, mix the product at room temperature for several hours and then overnight at 4°C.
8How to determine the reference dosage for protein activity experiments?
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A
All protein products which have been verified by biological activity have activity verification information on our product page, customers can check the information of cell type used and ED50 value in the Biological Activity column.
9Why is ED50 a range?
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A
A bioactivity assay is a measurement of the biological response of a protein. Therefore, any changes in the bioactivity assay may also lead to different results. Such variations may include cell density, cell age, number of passages, nutritional status, media and additives used, as well as the experimental operator's practices. Due to the variable nature of bioactivity assays, the same protein may not produce the same ED50 under different circumstances. For this reason, PrimeGene's protein instructions give a range of ED50s.
10Application of products
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Our products can be classified according to scientific fields, but no clear guidance is given on their specific applications. Since proteins can be explored for multiple applications and methods of application according to their functions, we recommend our customers to conduct experiments according to the literature or to explore their own application methods based on scientific research.
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